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Hướng Dẫn Chi Tiết Cách Dùng Mệnh Đề Quan Hệ

Bên cạnh cách dùng cấu trúc nâng cao để đạt điểm 7.0 trong IELTS là cấu trúc đảo ngữ, cũng như cách dùng các từ đồng nghĩa Synonym trong IELTS, Mệnh đề quan hệ là điểm ngữ pháp Advanced mà các em phải nắm vững, nếu muốn đạt điểm cao trong IELTS nói chung và IELTS Writing nói riêng.

Các lưu ý về cách dùng chính của Which như sau:

Nguồn: perfect-english-grammar

1. Dùng , Which để đại điện nguyên cả câu phía trước

Ví dụ 1:

I bought a new car. It is very fast.
→ I bought a new car that is very fast.

Ví dụ 2:

She lives in New York. She likes living in New York.
→ She lives in New York, which she likes.

Chú ý: cách dùng , WHICH chỗ này

, WHICH có ý nghĩa đại diện cho cả câu She lives in New York ở phía trước.

, Which có thể rút gọn thành , Ving trong mệnh đề quan hệ

  • Ví dụ 1: 

Diets that are high in saturated fat clog up our arteries, thereby reducing the blood flow to our hearts and brains.

Câu này chính là câu rút gọn của

Diets that are high in saturated fat clog up our arteries, which thereby reduces the blood flow to our hearts and brains.

==> mang nghĩa là cái việc mà ( Diets that are high in saturated fat clog up our arteries) làm ( reduces the blood flow to our hearts and brains)

  • Ví dụ 2:
They had failed to agree to a settlement, thereby throwing 250 people out of work.
==> They had failed to agree to a settlement, which thereby throwed 250 people out of work.
2. Defining and Non-defining

A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about:

  • I like the woman who lives next door.
    (If I don't say 'who lives next door', then we don't know which woman I mean).

A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. We don't need this information to understand the sentence.

  • I live in London, which has some fantastic parks.
    (Everybody knows where London is, so 'which has some fantastic parks' is extra information).
We don't use 'that' in non-defining relative clauses, so we need to use 'which' if the pronoun refers to a thing, and 'who' if it refers to a person.
  • My boss, who is very nice, lives in Manchester.
  • My sister, who I live with, knows a lot about cars.
  • My bicycle, which I've had for more than ten years, is falling apart.
  • My mother's house, which I grew up in, is very small.
  • Yesterday I called our friend Julie, who lives in New York.
  • The photographer called to the Queen, who looked annoyed.
  • Last week I bought a new computer, which I don't like now.
  • I really love the new Chinese restaurant, which we went to last night.
3. Prepositions and relative clauses
  • listen to

The music is good. Julie listens to the music.
→ The music (which / that) Julie listens to is good.

  • work with

My brother met a woman. I used to work with the woman.
→ My brother met a woman (who / that) I used to work with.

  • go to

The country is very hot. He went to the country.
→ The country (which / that) he went to is very hot.

  • come from

I visited the city. John comes from the city.
→ I visited the city (that / which) John comes from.

  • apply for

The job is well paid. She applied for the job.
→ The job (which / that) she applied for is well paid.


'Whose' is always the subject of the relative clause and can't be left out. It replaces a possessive. It can be used for people and things.

The dog is over there. The dog's / its owner lives next door.
→ The dog whose owner lives next door is over there.

The little girl is sad. The little girl's / her doll was lost.
→ The little girl whose doll was lost is sad.

The woman is coming tonight. Her car is a BMW.
→ The woman whose car is a BMW is coming tonight.

The house belongs to me. Its roof is very old.
→ The house whose roof is old belongs to me.

Where / when / why

We can sometimes use these question words instead of relative pronouns and prepositions.

I live in a city. I study in the city.

→ I live in the city where I study.
→ I live in the city that / which I study in.
→ I live in the city in which I study.


The bar in Barcelona is still there. I met my wife in that bar.

→ The bar in Barcelona where I met my wife is still there.
→ The bar in Barcelona that / which I met my wife in is still there.
→ The bar in Barcelona in which I met my wife is still there.


The summer was long and hot. I graduated from university in the summer.

→ The summer when I graduated from university was long and hot.
→ The summer that / which I graduated from university in was long and hot.
→ The summer in which I graduated was long and hot.


4. Sử dụng , From Which với nghĩa Thanks to / As a consequence

Ví dụ 1:

It is not to mention the fact that the school also allows children to communicate with people from all walks of life, ranging from their peerS to dustmen or healthcare workers, from which there is a fair chance that children will learn to behave with different types of people in an appropriate way

Ví dụ 2:

Through international news on televisions, students may know which foreign language is currently dominant in the world, from which they have clear orientation for their studying programs.


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