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24/12/2012 10:12 # 1
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Phát âm tiếng Anh hoàn hảo Copyright ©2009 T4VN.BIZ All Rights Reserved


Phát âm tiếng Anh hoàn hảo is the powerful system that will help you master American English pronunciation. This system uses the phonetic alphabet. Familiarize yourself with these symbols before you start using the system. First study the following links for charts of the phonetic symbols. Once you feel comfortable with the vowels and consonants, you're ready to learn the advanced part of English pronunciation: rhythm, stress, and speech patterns. It is the best that you listen to the words on the recordings to learn how to pronounce these sounds correctly. Be sure to read aloud each word or sentence as you listen.
ABC Song  http://www.youtube.com/watch#v=PrWJ-rC4YQc
Alphabet Sounds   http://www.youtube.com/watch#v=Ak8Es3jnLUc  
Sounds Like Learning Apple apple a a a   http://www.youtube.com/watch#v=9Nu_Z_ogVj0  
American English Phonemes   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hmgxj8DI1vw
IPA Phonemes of American English   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRf0porp31o

Bảng chữ cái tiếng Anh

A  a  /eɪ/        B  b /bee/       C  c  /see/              D  d  /dee/      E  e /ee/ 
F   f  /eff/        G  g /gee/       H  h  /aitch/             I   i   /eye/       J  j  /jay/
K  k  /kay/      L  l  /el/           M m /em/               N n   /en/        O o /oh/
P  p /pee/     Q  q /kyu/        R  r   /are/               S s  /ess/       T  t  /tee/
U u /you/      V v /vee/       W w /dubba you/   X x  /ex/          Y y  /why/       Z z /zee/

Bảng mẫu tự phiên âm quốc tế (viết tắt IPA)

International Phonetic Alphabet là hệ thống các ký hiệu phiên âm được các nhà ngôn ngữ học tạo ra và sử dụng nhằm thể hiện các âm tiết trong mọi ngôn ngữ của nhân loại một cách chuẩn xác và riêng biệt.
IPA symbol Examples
p           pen, spin, tip
b           but, web
t            two, sting, bet
d           do, odd
tʃ           chair, nature, teach
dʒ         gin, joy, edge
k           cat, kill, skin, queen, unique, thick
ɡ           go, get, beg
f            fool, enough, leaf, off, photo
v           voice, have, of
θ           thing, teeth                                                              ('theta')
ð           this, breathe, father                                               ('eth')
s           see, city, pass
z           zoo, rose
ʃ            she, sure, emotion, leash
ʒ           pleasure, beige, seizure
x           Scottish loch
h           ham
m         man, ham
n           no, tin
ŋ           ringer, sing, finger, drink                                       ('angma')
l, ɫ         left, bell
ɹ            run, very
w          we, queen
j            yes
ʍ          what
    IPA:  Marginal Sounds
ʔ           uh-oh                                                                        ('glottal stop')
IPA symbol             Examples
æ         TRAP                  lad, bad, cat                                 ('ash')
ɑ           PALM                 father
ɑ           LOT                    not, wasp
ɔ           THOUGHT        law, caught, all, halt, talk           ('open o')
ə           COMMA             about                                             ('schwa')
ɨ                                        English
ɪ            KIT                      sit
i            HAPPY               city
i            FLEECE            see, meat
eɪ          FACE                 date, day, pain, whey, rein
ɛ           DRESS              bed                                                ('epsilon')
ɝ/ɹ        NURSE              burn, herd, earth, bird
ɑɹ         START                arm, car
ʌ           STRUT               run, won, flood                            ('caret')
ʊ           FOOT                 put, hood
u           GOOSE             soon, through
ɚ/ɹ̩        LETTER            winner
aɪ, ʌi     PRICE               my, wise, high
ɔɪ          CHOICE            boy, hoist
oʊ        GOAT                  no, toe, soap, tow, soul, roll, cold, folk
aʊ        MOUTH              now, trout
(j)u       --                         cute, few, dew
ɪɹ          NEAR                 deer, here
ɛɹ         SQUARE            mare, there, bear
ɔɹ         NORTH              sort, warm
oɹ, ɔɹ    FORCE              tore, boar, port
ʊɹ         CURE                 tour, moor
jʊɹ, jɝ   --                         pure, Europe 
Các phụ âm IPA
được xếp từng dòng chỉ cách phát âm và từng cột chỉ vị trí phát âm. Ở những dòng có đôi chữ bên cạnh nhau, chữ bên phải là phụ âm hữu thanh

Vị trí phát âm->|     Môi                  Đầu Lưỡi                              Mặt lưỡi                        Gốc lưỡi      Họng
-------------|--------------|------------------|Chân |-------|---------------------------------|-----------------|
Cách phát âm  | Đôi | Môi  |Răng | Chân | răng  |Quặt |    Vòm |    Vòm      | Lưỡi | Yết | Thanh | 
                 |môi | răng|           | răng   | sau   | lưỡi |              |    mềm    | nhỏ  | hầu | quản   | 

Mũi           m                                 n                                                  ŋ
Tắc           p  b                          t  d                                              k  ɡ 
Sát                    f  v      θ  ð      s  z       ʃ  ʒ                tʃ  dʒ         x                                                   h 
Tiếp cận                                       ɹ                                  j          ʍ  w
Tiếp cận cạnh                              l
Các nguyên âm IPA được xếp từng dòng chỉ chiều cao của lưỡi, độ mở của hàm, và từng cột chỉ chiều sâu của lưỡi. Khi nào có hai ký tự bên cạnh nhau, ký tự bên phải là nguyên âm làm tròn.
                   Trước      Gần trước          Giữa               Gần sau           Sau
Đóng          i • y                     ɨ • ʉ                       ɯ • u
Gần đóng                 ɪ • ʏ                             • ʊ
Nửa đóng       e • ø                  ɘ • ɵ                     ɤ • o
Giữa                                                           ə
Nửa mở                   ɛ • œ                 ɜ • ɞ                ʌ • ɔ
Gần mở                           æ                    ɐ
Mở                                      a • ɶ                                  ɑ • ɒ
Các nguyên âm IPA được xếp từng dòng chỉ độ mở của hàm, và từng cột chỉ vị trí của môi, vị trí của lưỡi.
môi căng                                                                                                                             môi tròn
hàm đóng                                                                                                                           hàm đóng 

                I   / i /                                         XII   / ɝ/ɹ /                                           X   / u / 
High 
     beat                                           burn                                                   boot 
vowels           II   / ɪ /                                                                               IX   / ʊ / 
                        bit                                                                                     book 
                              III   / eɪ /                       XI / ә /                     VIII   / oʊ / 
Mid                        bait                              but                          boat 
vowels                         IV   / ɛ /                                  VII   / ɔ
                                      bet                                         bought 
                                             
V   / æ / 
Low                                      bat 
vowels                                             VI   / ɑ / 
                                                          baht 
lưỡi          Trước miệng     Gần trước         Giữa             Gần sau              Sau miệng
môi căng                                                                                                                             môi tròn
hàm mở                                                                                                                              hàm mở
Trong biểu đồ nguyên âm, để đọc bốn thể loại ở bốn góc chỉ cần chuyển động môi và hàm, đầu lưỡi nằm yên chạm chân răng cửa dưới.
1. Cách phát âm thể loại I / i /     beat, hàm đóng, môi căng ngang, tạo âm dài.
2. Cách phát âm thể loại X / u /   boot, hàm đóng, môi nhô tròn, tạo âm dài.
3. Cách phát âm thể loại VII / ɔ /  bought, hàm mở, môi mở rộng, tạo âm dài.
4. Cách phát âm thể loại V / æ /  bat, hàm mở, môi căng ngang, tạo âm ngắn.
Vowel sound I is called a high, front, tense vowel because the tongue is high in the front of the mouth, and the muscles of the throat and lips are very tight.
Vowel sound X is called a high, back, rounded vowel sound because the tongue is high in the back of the mouth, and the lips are rounded.
Vowel sound V is called a low, front, lax vowel because the sound is made in the front of the mouth, and the tongue is low and relaxed. 

To pronounce tense vowels: Keep your tongue tight. Hold the sound of the vowel. Make your voice go up and then glide down at the end.
To pronounce lax vowels: Keep your tongue relaxed. Keep the sound short. Do not let your voice glide down at the end. 
                            beat / bit          bead / bid          cape / cap       hope / hop

Nguyên âm tiếng Anh.

Mỗi nguyên âm tạo ra một âm tiết trong một từ. Những âm tiết cũng được nhấn mạnh và không nhấn mạnh. Tất cả nguyên âm đều được đọc bằng dây thanh rung, lưỡi không chạm những phần khác của miệng, răng, hoặc môi.
Cách phát âm nguyên âm khác nhau bởi
• khoảng cách giữa đôi môi
• hình dạng của đôi môi
• khoảng thời gian âm thanh được giữ
There are five vowel letters:      a        e        i         o         u
The alphabet vowel sounds   / eɪ /,   / i /,   / aɪ /,  / oʊ /,  / u /  are pronounced with a off-glide.
The relative vowel sounds      / æ /,  / ɛ /,   / ɪ /,    / ɑ /,    / ʌ /  are pronounced with no off-glide.
The small changes in the sound at the end is called the off-glide.
If there is only ONE vowel letter in a short word, it is pronounced with its relative vowel sound.
If there are TWO vowel letters in a short word, the first vowel letter is pronounced with its alphabet vowel sound. The second vowel letter is silent.
In many words, the letter y and w are pronounced as vowel sounds.
/ i /                       / aɪ /                  / eɪ /                     / oʊ /
city                      apply               always               below
comedy             cry                    astray                 blow
electricity           fly                     dismay               grows
funny                  my                    may                    knowing
happy                 reply                pays                   row
history                shy                  player                 show
lazy                     sky                   say                     slow
photography     supply             stayed                snow
pretty                  type                  today                  throw

studying            why                   way                    tow 
/ æ /   lad, bad, cat - Tense vowel AH Common Spellings : a (always followed by a consonant)
Cách phát âm / æ /, hàm gần mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 15 mm, môi căng ngang, lưỡi THẤP đầu lưỡi chạm chân răng cửa dưới, tạo âm ngắn.

To make the / æ / sound: Move your jaw to a near-open position. Stretch your lips horizontally. Place the tip of your tongue behind your lower front teeth. 
            at, back, bad, bat, black, cab, cap, cat, Dan, flat, jacket, lad, mad, pack, pad, ran, sack, shack, shad, snaps, stacking, tan, tap, track, trap 
/ i /                      / æ /                   / ɛ /                     / æ /                     / ɛ /                     / æ /
feet, feat            fat                      bed                    bad                     pet                      pat
heat                   hat                     beg                    bag                     pled                    plaid
heed, he'd        had                    dead                 dad                     said                    sad
he's                   has                    end                    and                     send                  sand
leap                   lap                     fed                     fad                      set                      sat
neat                   gnat                   head                 had                     ten                      pan
seat                   sat                     lend                   land                    then                    than
seed                 sad                    met                    mat                     wreck                  rack
2  / ɑ /    father, not, wasp                            - Lax vowel O : o, a (always followed by consonants)
Cách phát âm / ɑ /, hàm mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 20 mm, môi bình thường, lưỡi THẤP, tạo âm ngắn.
To make the / ɑ / sound: Move your jaw to an open position. Place your tongue near the floor of your mouth away from your lower front teeth. 
            baht, Bob, borrow, cod, collar, copy, cot, crops, dock, doctor, Dodd, doll, dollar, Don, encore, ennui, father, fond, honor, honest, John, knowledge, lock, lot, mod, modern, mop, not, obvious, on, operate, option, palm, problem, psalm, rock, rod, Ron, Roz, shock, shop, stocking, stop, stopped, Tom, trod, wand, wasp
/ ʌ /                     / ɑ /                   / æ /                     / ɑ/
buddy                body                 add                     odd
cup                    cop                    backs                box
gut                     got                     band                  bond
hut                     hot                     jab                      job
nut                     not, knot           stack                  stock
putt                    pot                     van                     Von
rut                      rot                      wax                    want
shut                   shot                  yam                    yawn

3  / ɔ /         law, caught, all, halt, talk           - Tense vowel AW : aw, au, ou, o, al + consonant
Cách phát âm / ɔ /, hàm nửa mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 15 mm, môi mở rộng, lưỡi thấp đầu lưỡi chạm chân răng cửa dưới, tạo âm dài.

To make the / ɔ / sound: Move your jaw to an open-mid position. Keep your lips in an oval shape. Place the tip of your tongue behind your lower front teeth. 
            all, always, Audrey, August, author, auto, awful, broad, brought, call, caller, calm, caught, cause, cost, cross, dawn, daughter, draw, faucet, fault, halt, law, lawyer, lost, offer, often, ought, saw, talk, tall, thought, water
/ ʌ /                     / ɔ /                     / oʊ /                  / ɔ /
but                     bought              boast                 bossed
cuff                    cough                boat                   bought
cut                     caught               bowl                  ball
gulf                    golf                    coat                   caught
gun                    gone                 loafed                loft
lung                   long                  loan                   lawn
rung                  wrong                oaf                     off
sung                 song                  own                   on
4  / ә /        about                                   - Lax vowel UH Common Spellings : a, e, i, o, u
Cách phát âm / ə /, hàm giữa, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 2 mm, môi bình thường, lưỡi giữa miệng, tạo âm ngắn nhẹ.

To make the / ә / sound : Move your jaw to a mid position. Part your lips slightly. Keep your mouth and jaw relaxed. Place your tongue low in the center of your mouth. 
            ago, bird, bub, come, comma, cup, duck, dud, earn, earth, effect, first, fur, heard, mud, nerve, occur, purse, Rudd, serve, shut, trudge, urn, work, worm, worth, yearns
/ ə /                     / əɹ /
but                     burn
chuck                church
cut                     curt
does                 dirt
full                     furl
fun                     first
gut                     girl
hull                    hurl
hut                     hurt

5   / ɪ /          sit                                              - Lax vowel IH : i, y (always followed by consonants)
Cách phát âm / ɪ /, hàm gần đóng, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 6 mm, môi bình thường, lưỡi cao, tạo âm ngắn.

To make the / ɪ / sound: Move your jaw to a near-close position. Keep your tongue and cheeks relaxed. Keep your lips in a neutral position. Place your tongue high in your mouth. Show only your top teeth. 
            bid, big, bring, build, busy, chicken, dinner, gym, if, in, it, Jim, kit, list, listen, living, miss, pretty, picture, pig, ridge, sick, sieve, Smith, symbol, thin, this 
/ ɪ /                      / i / 
fill                       feel                    
hill                      heel, heal, he'll
lick                     leak, leek
pick                    peak, peek
pill                      peel, peal
rich                     reach
sin                     seen, scene
still                     steal 
will                     we'll
6  / i /           see, meat                                  - Tense vowel EE : e, ee, ea, e + consonant + e, -y
Cách phát âm / i /, hàm đóng, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 10 mm, ban đầu môi bình thường lưỡi giữa miệng, sau đó môi căng ngang 10 mm, lưỡi CAO đầu lưỡi chạm chân răng cửa dưới, tạo âm dài.

To make the / i / sound: Move your jaw to a close position. Stretch your lips horizontally. Place the tip of your tongue behind your lower front teeth. Show both your top and bottom teeth. 
            agreement, amoeba, baby, be, bead, beat, bee, beer, believes, chamois, chassis, chilly, clearly, debris, eat, easily, easy, edgy, either, fear, feel, feet, field, fleece, freeze, happy, he, head, heavy, honey, Jeannie, keep, key, leaders, least, leaving, leek, marry, me, meat, neither, nicely, niece, peas, people, Pete, plainly, please, police, quickly, receive, see, seek, seem, shaky, she, sheet, ski, slowly, soapy, sticky, suite, sweet, sweetie, sweetly, teal, team, tricky, we 
/ ɪ /                      / i / 
bit                       beet
chip                   cheap
did                     deed
dim                    deem
dip                     deep
fist                      feast 
his                      he's
hit                       heat
lip                       leap
live                     leave
mill                    meal
pit                       peat 
rid                       read
rip                       reap
seek                  sick
ship                   sheep
sis                     cease
sit                       seat 
7  / eɪ /       date, day, pain, whey, rein        - Tense vowel A : a, ay, eigh, ai, a + consonant + e, ea
Cách phát âm / eɪ /, hàm nửa đóng, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 13 mm, ban đầu môi bình thường lưỡi giữa miệng, sau đó môi căng ngang 10 mm, lưỡi CAO, tạo âm dài.

To make the / eɪ / sound: Move your jaw to a close-mid position. Stretch your lips horizontally. Place your tongue in the middle of your mouth. 
            ate, ballet, brulee, buffet, cafe, cape, date, day, eight, face, fiancee, frail, gauge, great, lace, later, made, mainly, pain, pate, plain, prey, rake, rein, Renee, sail, same, say, shake, shape, Spain, stays, straight, suede, table, tailor, they, today, train, trait, wait, way, whey 
/ ɛ /                      / eɪ /
age                    edge
bet                     bait
chess                chase
debt                   date
fed                      fade
fell                      fail
get                      gate 
led                      laid
met                     mate
mess                 mace
pen                     pane, pain
red                      raid
shed                   shade
tell                      tail
tent                     taint
test                     taste
tred                     trade
wed                    wade
wren                   rain, rein, reign 
8  / ɛ /         bed                                           - Lax vowel EH : e, ea (always followed by consonants)
Cách phát âm / ɛ /, hàm nửa mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 13 mm, môi bình thường, lưỡi giữa miệng, tạo âm ngắn.

To make the / ɛ / sound: Move your jaw to an open-mid position. Keep your lips and mouth neutral. Keep your tongue relaxed and in the middle of your mouth. 
            again, any, bed, Ben, bury, can, ceiling, debt, dress, egg, Ed, edge, Esther, Fred, friend, get, guest, heifer, leopard, let, letter, many, meadow, med, never, pen, pet, rent,  sell, send, shed, shell, Shep, step, tell, tent, test, tread, trend, upset, wet
/ ɪ /                       / ɛ /
bid                      bed
big                      beg
did                      dead
fill                        fell
fist                       fest
gym                    gem
hid                      head
lid                        led, lead
lift                        left
miss                   mess
mitt                     met
pick                     peck 
Sid                      said
six                       sex
slipped              slept
tin                        ten
wrist                    rest
/ i /                       / ɛ /
beat, beet          bet
bleed                  bled
feel                      fell
geese                guess
he'd, heed         head
mean                 men
read, reed         red, read
sealing, ceiling   selling
seed                  said
sees                  says

9  / ɹ /    burn, herd, earth, bird
Cách phát âm / ɹ /, hàm nửa mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 13 mm, hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, uốn đầu lưỡi, môi nhô tròn, tạo âm dài.

To make the / ɹ / sound: Move your jaw to an open-mid position. Raise your tongue so that the sides touch the insides of your back, upper teeth. Curl the tip of your tongue back, but do not let it touch your palate. Protrude and purse lips to a rounded position. 
            bird, burn, certainly, chirping, earth, eran, girl, herd, learn, nurse, pleasure, urban, world
10  / ɑɹ /   arm, car
Cách phát âm / ɑɹ /, hàm mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 20 mm, ban đầu môi bình thường lưỡi THẤP, sau đó hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, uốn đầu lưỡi, môi nhô tròn, tạo âm dài.
To make the / ɑɹ / sound: Move your jaw to an open position. Place your tongue near the floor of your mouth away from your lower front teeth. Raise your tongue so that the sides touch the insides of your back, upper teeth. Curl the tip of your tongue back, but do not let it touch your palate. Protrude and purse lips to a rounded position. 
            are, ark, arm, Barton, bazaar, car, carve, dark, hard-hearted, hardly, large, Mars, sergeant, star, start 

 / ɹ /                      / ɑɹ / 
blurred               blarney
Burke                 bark
certain               carton
churn                 charge
curd                    card
curt                     cart
fir                         far
first                      farm
flurry                    tar
further                 farther
furl                      Carl
gird                     guard
heard                  hard
hurt                     heart
insured              sharp
Kirk                     carp
lurk                     lark
murmur             march
pearl                  park
pert                     part
shirt                    shark
sir                       sorry
sure                   shard
turkey                 tarp
third                    cathartic
verve                   varnish

11  / ʌ /      up, run, won, flood              - Lax vowel UH : u, o (always followed by consonants)
Cách phát âm / ʌ /, hàm nửa mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 10 mm, môi mở tròn, lưỡi giữa miệng, tạo âm ngắn.

To make the / ʌ / sound: Move your jaw to an open-mid position. Keep your lips in a rounded circle. Place your tongue low in the center of your mouth. 
            blood, Buffy, cousin, done, dust, enough, flood, love, money, mother, of, rough, rug, run, shrubs, some, son, strut, Sunday, sunny, touch, trouble, under, up, was, won 
/ ʊ /                     / ʌ /
book                  buck
could                 cud
look                   luck
put                     putt
took                   tuck 
12  / ʊ /      hood, put                  - Lax vowel OO : oo, ou, u (always followed by a consonant)
Cách phát âm / ʊ /, hàm gần đóng, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 6 mm, môi nhô tròn, lưỡi cao, tạo âm ngắn.

To make the / ʊ / sound: Move your jaw to a near-close position. Slightly tense and protrude your lower jaw. Move your lips to a rounded circle. Keep your tongue high, but do not push it forward. 
            cookbook, hood, neighborhood, pudding, push, understood, wolf, woman, wool,
/ ʊ /                     / u /
book                  booed
bushel              boo
cook                  kook
cookie               kooky
could                 cooed          
crook                 crew                  
cushion            cool
foot                    food
full                     fool
good                 gooed
hood                 who'd
look                   Luke
nook                  nuke
pull                    pool
put                     pooch
should              shoot               
soot                   suit
sugar                shoe
stood                stewed
took                   toucan
would, wood   wooed

13  / u /      soon, through                   - Tense vowel OOH : oo, u, ough, ue, ew, u + consonant + e
Cách phát âm / u /, hàm đóng, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 10 mm, ban đầu môi bình thường lưỡi sau miệng, sau đó môi nhô TRÒN 6 mm, lưỡi sau CAO đầu lưỡi chạm chân răng cửa dưới, tạo âm dài.

To make the / u / sound: Move your jaw to a close position. Keep your lips tense in a perfectly rounded circle. Place the tip of your tongue behind your lower front teeth. 
            blooms, blue, canoe, choose, clue, do, due, few, flew, flu, food, gloomy, goose, juice, June, knew, lieu, loose, lose, new, news, noon, rheumatism, room, rude, shoe, shooed,  soon, soup, Sue, through, too, tool, truth, two, Tuesday, who 
/ u /                    / ʌ /
boon                 bun
boot                  but

coop                 cup
mood                mud
shoot                shut
soon                 sun

super               supper
tune                  ton
14  / aɪ /    eye, my, wise, high                     - Tense vowel I : i, ie, y, igh, i + consonants + e
Cách phát âm / aɪ /, hàm mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 20 mm, ban đầu môi mở rộng lưỡi thấp, sau đó môi căng ngang 10 mm, lưỡi CAO, tạo âm dài.
To make the / aɪ / sound: Move your jaw to an open position. Place your tongue near the floor of your mouth. Glide jaw and place your tongue high in the mouth. Move your jaw from an opened to a more closed position.
           aisle, bike, buy, choir, cycle, diaper, dried, eye, fly, guide, guy, height, high, I, ice, I'd, Ida, I'm, indict, Ira, kite, light, Liza, might, my, nice, pie, rye, size, sky, surprises, try, twice, wise

15  / ɔɪ /     boy, hoist                                    - Tense vowel OY : oy, oi, eu
Cách phát âm / ɔɪ /, hàm nửa mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 13 mm, ban đầu môi mở rộng lưỡi thấp, sau đó môi căng ngang 10 mm lưỡi cao, tạo âm dài.
To make the / ɔɪ / sound: Move your jaw to an open-mid position. Keep your lips in an oval shape. Place your tongue near the floor of your mouth. Glide jaw and move your lips from an opened to a more closed position. Place your tongue high in the mouth. Show only your top teeth.
            boil, boy, choice, coil, coin, destroyed, Floyd, foiled, hoist, joy, noisy, pointed, ploy, poise, poison, Roy, soil, spoiled, toy, Troy

16  / oʊ /  goat, no, toe, soap, tow, soul    - Tense vowel OU : o, ow, oe, ough, o + consonants + e

Cách phát âm / oʊ /, hàm nửa đóng, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 13 mm, ban đầu môi mở tròn lưỡi sau miệng, sau đó môi nhô TRÒN 6 mm, lưỡi sau CAO, tạo âm dài.
To make the / oʊ / sound: Move your jaw to a close-mid position. Move your lips from an open position to a closed, rounded circle. Keep your lips tense, then relax and neutral at the end of the vowel. 
           oak, boat, bold, bone, bowling, brooch, chose, clothes, coke, cold, depot, faux, float, foal, fold, folk, go, goat, groan, hoe, hold, Joe, loan, low, mauve, more, no, oh, old, over, owner, plateau, pole, roll, row, sew, so, soap, shoulder, showed, slow, snowmobile, soul, stone, though, toe, told, tone, tow, window, yeoman, zero 
/ ʌ /                     / oʊ /
come               comb
crumb              chrome
cup                   cope
dove                 dove
fun                    phone
hum                  home
mud                 mode, mowed
nut                    note
rub                    robe
rug                    rogue
rum                   roam
shun                 shone 
/ ɑ /                    / oʊ / 
clock                cloak
co                     coat
cod                   code
hop                   hope
rod                    road
sock                 soak

slop                  slope 
Todd                 toad 
17  / aʊ /  ow!, now, trout                        - Tense vowel OW : ow, ou
Cách phát âm / aʊ /, hàm gần mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 15 mm, ban đầu môi mở rộng lưỡi thấp, sau đó môi mở tròn 6 mm lưỡi cao, tạo âm dài.

To make the / aʊ / sound: Move your jaw to a near-open position. Place your tongue near the floor of your mouth. Glide jaw and put your tongue high in your mouth. Move your lips to a rounded circle. Move your mouth from an opened to a more closed position. 
            allowed, aloud, bough, brown, downtown, house, how, mouse, mouth, townhouse 
/ aʊ /                  / ɑ / 
about               bought
chowder          chalk
couch               caught
crowd               crawl
doubt                dot
found                fought
gown                got
howl                 hall
loud                  lost
now                  not
out                    ought
pound              Paul
round               rot
shower            shawl
stout                 stop
Stroud              straw
town                 top
thousand         thought
vow                   volume
Wow!                wash
Yow!                 yawn
Zowie!              zombie 

18  / (j)u / you, cute, few, dew
Cách phát âm / (j)u /, hàm đóng, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 10 mm, ban đầu môi căng ngang hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, sau đó môi nhô TRÒN, lưỡi cao, tạo âm dài.

To make the / (j)u / sound: Move your jaw to a close position. Stretch your lips horizontally. Place the sides of your tongue to touch the insides of your upper teeth, near the center of your mouth, then move your lips to a perfectly rounded circle. Keep your lips tense. Keep your tongue high, but do not push it forward. 
            abuse, accused, beauty, computer, cues, cute, dew, ewe, feud, few, hue, music, queue, universal, university, use, used, using, view, yew, you
19  / ɪɹ /      deer, here
Cách phát âm / ɪɹ /, hàm gần đóng, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 6 mm, ban đầu môi bình thường lưỡi cao, sau đó hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, uốn đầu lưỡi, môi nhô tròn, tạo âm dài.

To make the / ɪɹ / sound: Move your jaw to a near-close position. Keep your tongue and cheeks relaxed. Keep your lips in a neutral position. Place your tongue high in your mouth. Show only your top teeth. Raise your tongue so that the sides touch the insides of your back, upper teeth. Curl the tip of your tongue back, but do not let it touch your palate. Protrude and purse lips to a rounded position. 
            beard, beer, cashier, cheer, deer, ear, fear, hear, here, near, year 
20  / ɛɹ /    mare, there, bear
Cách phát âm / ɛɹ /, hàm nửa mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 13 mm, ban đầu môi bình thường lưỡi giữa miệng, sau đó hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, uốn đầu lưỡi, môi nhô tròn, tạo âm dài.

To make the vowel / ɛɹ / sound: Move your jaw to an open-mid position. Raise your tongue so that the sides touch the insides of your back, upper teeth. Curl the tip of your tongue back, but do not let it touch your palate. Protrude and purse lips to a rounded position. 
            bear, mare, square, there
/ i /                      / ɛɹ /
beer                  bear
cheer                chair
peer                  pear, pair, pare
steer                 stair, stare
fear                   fair, fare
here, hear        hair, hare
ear                    air
tear, tier            tear
21  / ɔɹ /    tore, boar, port
Cách phát âm / ɔɹ /, hàm nửa mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 15 mm, ban đầu môi mở rộng lưỡi thấp đầu lưỡi chạm chân răng cửa dưới, sau đó hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, uốn đầu lưỡi, môi nhô tròn, tạo âm dài.

To make the / ɔɹ / sound: Move your jaw to an open-mid position. Keep your lips in an oval shape. Place the tip of your tongue behind your lower front teeth. Raise your tongue so that the sides touch the insides of your back, upper teeth. Curl the tip of your tongue back, but do not let it touch your palate. Protrude and purse lips to a rounded position. 
           afford, boar, court, force, forth, four, horrible, more, orderly, ordinary, port, pour, sort, tore, war, warm
22  / ʊɹ /    tour, moor
Cách phát âm / ʊɹ /, hàm gần đóng, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 6 mm, ban đầu môi mở tròn lưỡi cao, sau đó hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, uốn đầu lưỡi, môi nhô tròn, tạo âm dài.

To make the / ʊɹ / sound: Move your jaw to a near-close position. Slightly tense and protrude your lower jaw. Move your lips to a rounded circle. Keep your tongue high, but do not push it forward. Raise your tongue so that the sides touch the insides of your back, upper teeth. Curl the tip of your tongue back, but do not let it touch your palate. Protrude and purse lips to a rounded position. 
           cure, moor, tour
23  / aɪɹ /  hire
Cách phát âm / aɪɹ /, hàm mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 20 mm, ban đầu môi mở rộng lưỡi thấp, sau đó hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, uốn đầu lưỡi, môi nhô tròn, tạo âm dài.

To make the / aɪɹ / sound: Move your jaw to an open position. Place your tongue near the floor of your mouth. Glide jaw and raise your tongue so that the sides touch the insides of your back, upper teeth. Curl the tip of your tongue back, but do not let it touch your palate. Protrude and purse lips to a rounded position. 
           buyer, dire, fire, fired, hire, hiring, liar, tire, wire
24  / aʊɹ / our
Cách phát âm / aʊɹ /, hàm gần mở, khoảng cách giữa đôi môi 15 mm, ban đầu môi mở rộng lưỡi thấp, sau đó hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, uốn đầu lưỡi, môi nhô tròn, tạo âm dài.

To make the / aʊɹ / sound: Move your jaw to a near-open position. Place your tongue near the floor of your mouth. Glide jaw and raise your tongue so that the sides touch the insides of your back, upper teeth. Curl the tip of your tongue back, but do not let it touch your palate. Protrude and purse lips to a rounded position. 
           flour, hour, our, sour, tower 
/ əɹ /                   / ɑɹ /                     / ɛɹ /                      / ɔɹ /                     / ɪɹ /                     / aʊɹ / 
burn                  barn                    bear                    born                    beer                   bower
churn                char                    chair                    chore                  cheer                 chowder
cur                     car                      care                     core                    kir                       cower
dirt                     dark                    dare                    door                    dear                   dour
earn                  art                        air                        or                        ear                      hour
firm                    farm                    fairy                     form                    fierce                  -
first                    far                        fair                       four                     fear                    flower
gird                    guard                 scared                gored                  geared              Gower
heard                hard                    haired                 horde                 here's                -
hurt                    heart                   hair                     horse                  here                   how 're
murky                mar                     mare                  more                   mere                   -
pert                    part                     pair                     pour                    peer                   power
rather                cathartic             there                   Thor                    theory                11th hour
sir                      sorry                   Sarah                  sore                    seer                   sour
spur                  spar                    spare                  sport                   spear                  -
stir                     star                     stair                     store                   steer                   -
sure                  sharp                  share                  shore                 shear                shower
turtle                  tar                       tear                      tore                     tear                    tower
a word              -                           aware                 award                 a weird               -
word                  -                           where                 war                     we're                   -
work                  -                           wear                   warm                  weird                   -
Phụ âm tiếng Anh
Cách phát âm phụ âm khác nhau bởi
• vị trí của lưỡi, môi, và răng
• cách tạo làn hơi thoát ra
• việc sử dụng, hoặc không sử dụng dây thanh rung
For continuants sound, we let the air flow through the mouth without stopping it.
For stops sound, we stop the air flow inside the mouth.
Listen to the words "hiss" and "buzz." Press your fingers against your ears, and say the word " buzz," continuing the final / z / sound until you hear the difference from the / s / sound. The buzzing of the / z / sound is called voicing. / z / is a voiced sound. / s / is a voiceless sound.
Sibilants are consonant sounds that make a hiss.
Voiced sibilants        his / z /          beige / ʒ /               badge / dʒ /
Voiceless sibilants  hiss / s /       wash / ʃ /                 batch / tʃ /
At the beginning of a word, voiceless stop sounds (/ p /, / t /, and / k /) are always followed by a puff of air. This puff of air is called aspiration or plosive.
The between-vowel d or t flap is a very quick and light stop; we make it by touching the tip of the tongue lightly against the tooth ridge instead of a d or t sound.
Stops         (The air flow is        Continuants        (The air       Voiceless             Voiced               
stopped momentarily)                continues to pass)                   without voice        with voice
p, b                                                      m                                               p                          b, m
k, g                                                      ng                                              k                           g, ng
t, d                                                       n                                                 t                           d, n
When one of those sounds           r, l                                               f                            v
happens at the end of a word.      f, v                                               wh                       w
We close the vocal cords               h                                                 th (thin)               th (this)
very sharply (glottal stop).              w, wh                                         s, sh, z, zh           z, zh (beige), j 
                                                            th (thin), th (this)                      h                           r, l
Special flap sound between         sibilant sounds: s, sh, z, zh                             (All vowels are voiced.)
vowels (heating / heeding)           (All vowels are continuants.)
28  / p /      pen, spin, tip, pie, open
Cách phát âm / p /, môi ngậm chặc, sau đó mở nhanh tạo làn hơi phụt ra vô thanh.

To make the / p / sound: Place your lips together. Open your lips while pushing air out. 
            April, grasp, harp, help, lamp, limp, map, package, paid, paper, party, pat, peck, Phillip, pick, pit, pizza, play, pot, praise, prepare, scalp, sharp, sleep, stamp, stop, trip, up, wasp
• The letter p is not pronounced in the following words. 
            corps, cupboard, pneumonia, psychology, raspberry, receipt, sapphire
• Do not make the puff when / p / occurs in the middle of a word before a vowel sound or directly follows / s /.
            apple, aspirin, expect, happy, hospital, people, purple, simple, span, spend, spill, spoil, whisper  
ph is pronounced like / f /: phone, phony, photo, photograph
ps is pronounced like / s /: psychiatrist, psychic, psychologist, psychology
/ p /                     / b /
pack                  back
pan                    ban
pare, pair, pear  bare, bear
pay                     bay
pea                    bee
peach               beach
pet                     bet
pin                     bin
pole                   bowl
pour, pore        bore, boar
prayed              braid
punch               bunch
push                 bush
29  / b /      but, web, bill, cabin, rob
Cách phát âm / b /, môi ngậm chặc, sau đó mở nhanh hữu thanh.

To make the / b / sound: Place your lips together. Open your lips while adding your voice. 
            bag, bill, bread, bulb, but, cabin, cabs, observe, rob, rubber, sobbed, web 
• The letter b is not pronounced in the following words. 
            comb, debt, doubt, lamb, subpoena, subtle, tomb, womb 
/ p /                     / b /
rapid                 rabid
repel                 rebel
ripped               ribbed
roped                robed 
30  / t /         two, sting, bet, time, rates, bat
Cách phát âm / t /, lưỡi chạm quanh chân răng trên, sau đó mở nhanh tạo làn hơi phụt ra đi qua đầu lưỡi vô thanh.
To make the / t / sound: Raise your tongue and press it against the tooth ridge all around so that the air cannot flow out. Quickly release your tongue, pushing air out. 
            act, apartment, apt, best, bet, biggest, can't, coat, eat, fault, got, happiest, hat, just, last, least, lift, lost, minute, most, pocket, put, sat, silliest, skirt, smallest, stand, stew, sting, straight, t-shirt, tame, tap, team, tenant, text, thyme, tore, tray, tree, twelve, twin, two, visit, went, worst
• The letter t is not pronounced in the following words.
            fasten, hasten, listen, mortgage, mustn't, often 
• Do not make the puff when / t / follows / s /. 
            faster, history, mistake, stamp, step, stove  
• To make the sound of / t / between vowels, tap the tongue quickly on the tooth ridge without holding it, then go on to the next vowel. 
            bitten, button, fountain, important, kitten, mitten, mountain, sentence
• The past tense marker, ed, is pronounced / t /, with the puff of air, when the verb ends in one of the voiceless consonants / p /, / k /, / ch /, / f /, / sh /, / s /, or / ks /. Be very careful not to pronounce the vowel e
            baked, cooked, faxed, gossiped, laughed, passed, picked, shopped, stopped, talked, taped, walked, washed, watched, worked 
/ s /                     / t /                  / t /                    / d /  
boats                boat                tab                   dab
buss                 but                  tall                   doll
cats                   cat                  tank                 dank
face                   fate                 teen                dean
mice                 might              tell                   dell
nice                   night               ten                   den
pass                 pat                  tie                     dye
race                  rate                 tied                  died
rice                    right                tip                    dip
tickets               ticket              tile                    dial
                                                  time                 dime
                                                  tome                dome
                                                  try                     dry
31  / d /      do, odd, door, bidder, sad
Cách phát âm / d /, lưỡi chạm quanh chân răng trên, sau đó mở nhanh hữu thanh.

To make the / d / sound: Raise your tongue and press it against the tooth ridge all around so that the air cannot flow out. Quickly release your tongue, adding your voice. 
           around, bad, bed, bidder, cold, dad, Dan, David, day, didn't, dime, dinner, dishes, do, does, dollar, Donna, door, dress, drive, drove, dwarf, Eddy, had, lid, odd, old, sad, said, tide 
           dam / dame, dim / dime, din / dine, dull / duel, bleed / bled, code / cod, node/ nod,      deed / died / did, feed / fade / fad, reed / raid / ride, rude / rode / rod, seed / side / sad
• The letter d is not pronounced in the following words. 
            grandchildren, grandfather, grandmother, handkerchief, Wednesday
• To make the sound / d / between vowels and after the consonant / r /, tap the tongue quickly on the tooth ridge without holding it, then go on to the next vowel. 
            added, body, city, daddy, faded, fitted, graded, grated, harder, lady, later, little, muddy, order, shorter, subtle 
• The past tense marker, ed, is pronounced / d /, when the verb ends in one of the voiced consonants / b /, / g /, / v /, / j /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / r /, / z /, / w /, or / y /. Be very careful not to pronounce the vowel e.
            buzzed, canned, cried, dreamed, enjoyed, feared, giggled, glued, hemmed, hugged, judged, loved, planned, played, programmed, rolled, rubbed, saved, schemed, sewed, snowed, stayed, whispered
• Add the vowel / ә / plus / d / to verbs ending with the sound / d / or / t /. The verb now has one more syllable.
            celebrated, created, decorated, ended, faded, folded, greeted, invited, landed, loaded, planted, shouted, waited, wanted
/ ɹ /                     / d /                       / n / + / d /         / l / + / d /        Middle / t /   Middle / d /   
core                  code                    find                    filed                    betting        bedding       
fear                   feed                     found                fouled                 latter           ladder
near                  need                   mind                 mild                     matter        madder
pair                   paid                     phoned            fold                      putting        pudding     
rave                  Dave                    spend              spelled               rater            raider
real                   deal                     trained              trailed                 waiter         wader
rent                   dent                                                                            wetting       wedding  
roam                dome
32  / tʃ /      chair, nature, teach, chin, ratchet, rich
Cách phát âm / tʃ /, đầu lưỡi chạm vòm, môi nhô tròn, sau đó mở nhanh tạo làn hơi vô thanh.
To make the / tʃ / sound: Purse your lips to a rounded position. Hold the tip of your tongue on the gum ridge. Stop and then quickly release the flow of air, while pull your tongue back from the gum ridge. 
            chair, chance, channel, Charles, chase, check, children, Chinese, chip, chose, Chuck, exchange, lunch, match, nature, question, reach, reaching, speech, teach, teacher, watch 
• The sound / t / followed by / iuw / is pronounced / tʃ /. 
            can't you, congratulations, didn't you, don't you, factual, let you, ritual, situation, won't you, wouldn't you
/ ʃ /                      / tʃ /                  
share                chair                
sheep               cheap            
she's                 cheese
shoe                  chew            
shop                  chop
cash                  catch            
dish                   ditch            
mush                much
wish                  which, witch
33  / dʒ /   gin, joy, edge, jet, gem
Cách phát âm / dʒ /, đầu lưỡi chạm vòm, môi nhô tròn, sau đó mở nhanh hữu thanh.
To make the / dʒ / sound: Purse your lips to a rounded position. Hold the tip of your tongue on the gum ridge. Stop and then quickly release the flow of air, while pull your tongue back from the gum ridge, add your voice. 
            agency, ajar, bridge, edge, gem, germ, gin, gym, huge, Janice, jeans, jeep, jet, Jill, Jim, joy, judge, jump, junior, just, major, majoring, region, register, soldier
• The sound / d / followed by / iuw / is pronounced / dʒ /. 
            could you, did you, education, graduate, had you, individual, would you
/ dʒ /                   / j /
jail                     Yale
jam                    yam
jell                     yell
jewel                 you'll
34  / k /       cat, kill, skin, queen, unique, thick, cake, baker, tack
Cách phát âm / k /, mặt lưỡi chạm vòm mềm, môi bình thường, sau đó mở nhanh tạo làn hơi phụt ra vô thanh.
To make the / k / sound: Touch the back of your tongue to your velum. Keep your lips neutral. Stop and then quickly release the flow of air. 
            ache, ask, back, baker, bank, bicker, black, cake, came, can, cane, cat, clean, come, cost, crazy, cut, fake, fork, frank, hawk, ink, kettle, khaki, kill, look, mosque, pick, queen, rack, sack, stomach, tack, talk, thick, unique, walk, work 
• The letter k is not pronounced in the following words. 
            knee, knew, knife, know, knowlege 
• Do not make the puff when / k / occurs in the middle of a word, follows / w /, or directly follows / s /. 
            asking, basket, chocolate, lacquer, lanky, monkey, queen, question, quick, quite, saccharine, schedule, school, scrape, skate, skin, sticky, tickle, uncle, wicked
• When / k / occurs just before another consonant, bring the back of the tongue to the velum, stop the air briefly, but do not release it; then make the next sound. 
            action, actor, anxious, asked, asks, baked, bakes, liked, likes, picture  
/ k /                     / g /
cap                    gap
card                   guard
cave                  gave 
coast                 ghost
curl                    girl
35  / g /       go, get, beg, gas, agree, bag
Cách phát âm / g /, mặt lưỡi chạm vòm mềm, môi bình thường, sau đó mở nhanh hữu thanh.
To make the / g / sound: Touch the back of your tongue to your velum. Keep your lips neutral. Stop and then quickly release the flow of air, add your voice. 
            agree, bag, beg, begged, dragged, egg, gallery, gallon, gas, gate, get, ghost, give, glad, glass, go, gracious, grade, luggage, rugged  
• The letter g is not pronounced in the following words. 
            bought, brought, campaign, caught, champagne, diaphragm, eight, height, lasagna, light, might, phlegm, reign, sign, taught, though, through, weight   
/ k /                     / g /
back                  bag
bicker               bigger
came                game
cane                 gain
clean                glean
come                gum
cot                     got
curl                    girl
hawk                 hog
pick                   pig
rack                   rag
sacked             sagged
tacked, tact      tagged
36  / f /        fool, enough, leaf, off, photo, far, phone, safe 
Cách phát âm / f /, môi dưới trong chạm răng cửa trên, sau đó mở nhanh tạo làn hơi vô thanh.
To make the / f / sound: Place your top teeth on the back of your lower lip. Push air out. 
            after, baffle, cough, enough, fall, far, fence, fish, find, floor, flower, for, food, fool, foul, found, fresh, fret, fruit, fun, half, laugh, leaf, left, loaf, muff, off, often, phone, photo, Ralph, safe, tough, trophy
/ p /                     / f / 
clip                    cliff                    
copy                  coffee               
lap                     laugh                
leap                   leaf
pace                  face
paid                   fade
pail                    fail
pare, pair, pear   fare, fair
past                   fast
pat                     fat
peel                   feel
peer                   fear
pieced               feast
pile                     file
pin                      fin
pine                   fine
pole                   foal
pool                   fool
pork                   fork
pour                   four
pray                    fray
pride                  fried
pup                    puff
put                     foot
ripped               rift
sipped              sift
wipe                  wife                    
37  / v /       voice, have, of, vase, reveal, rave
Cách phát âm / v /, môi dưới trong chạm răng cửa trên, sau đó mở nhanh hữu thanh.

To make the / v / sound: Place your top teeth on the back of your lower lip. Add your voice. 
            arrived, believe, drive, eleven, envious, envy, evening, ever, favor, five, have, loved, never, of, over, save, survive, vine, Virginia, voice 
fail / vail, fan / van, fast / vast, ferry / very, fine / vine, leafing / leaving, reference / reverence, rifle / rival, surface / service, belief / believe, half / have, leaf / leave, proof / prove, safe / save
/ b /                     / v /
bail, bale          veil, vale
ballet                 valet
ban                    van
base                 vase
bat                     vat
bent                   vent
berry, bury        very
best                   vest
bet                     vet
boat                   vote
buys                  vise
carb                  carve
curb                  curve
marble             marvel
robe                  rove
Serbs               serves
/ f /                      / v /
fairy                   very
final                   vinyl
half                    have
leaf                    leave
38  / θ /       thing, teeth, thumb, without, bath
Cách phát âm / θ /, đầu lưỡi nằm giữa răng cửa, kéo lưỡi nhanh tạo làn hơi vô thanh.
To make the / θ / sound: Place the tip of your tongue between your top and bottom teeth. Your tongue must be visible. Push air out. 
            birth, breadth, death, depth, health, length, month, nothing, oath, ruthless, something, strength, teeth, thing, thirsty, thirty, thousand, Thursday, throat, truthful, uncouth, wealthy, width
/ s /                     / θ /
face                   faith
force                  forth, fourth
mass                math
miss                 myth
mouse             mouth
pass                 path
sank                  thank
seem, seam   theme
sick                   thick
sin                     thin
sing                   thing
sink                   think
sought              thought
sum                   thumb
truce                  truth
/ t /                     / θ /
bat                     bath
boat                   both
boot                   booth
fate                     faith
mat                    math 
rat                       wrath
39  / ð /       this, breathe, father, the, weather, loathe
Cách phát âm / ð /, đầu lưỡi nằm giữa răng cửa, kéo lưỡi nhanh hữu thanh.

To make the / ð / sound: Place the tip of your tongue between your top and bottom teeth. Your tongue must be visible. Add your voice. 
            bathe, breathe, breathing, brother, father, loathes, other, rhythm, teething, the, these, they, this, those, together 
• The letter th is not pronounced in the following words. 
            asthma, isthmus
/ d /                     / ð /
breed                breathe
dare                  there, their, they're
den                   then
dough               though
fodder               father
ladder               lather
letter                  leather
mutter               mother
seed                 seethe
skating             scathing
sued                 soothe
utter, udder      other
wetter                weather, whether
writing, tiding   writhing
/ θ /                     / ð /
breath               breathe
cloth                  clothe
ether                 either
mouth               mouthe
thigh                  thy
think                  this
thought             though
thigh                  thy
wrath                 rather
40  / s /       see, city, pass, say, test, base
Cách phát âm / s /, đầu lưỡi chạm chân răng cửa trên, hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, sau đó mở nhanh kéo môi, tạo làn hơi đi qua vùng giữa lưỡi vô thanh.
To make the / s / sound: Place the tip of your tongue above and behind your upper teeth. Press the sides of your tongue against your teeth so that a valley is formed down the center of your tongue. Pull your lips back. Push air out. 
            acid, bosses, cease, cell, city, eraser, face, fast, kiss, loose, pass, place, raced, recent, rice, scene, see, small, some, square, waltz, waltzed 
• The letter s is not pronounced in the following words.
            aisle, chamois, chassis, corps, debris, lisle
• The letter x is often pronounced as / k / + / s /. 
            ax, exercise, expect, extra, fix, fox, relaxed, saxophone, tuxedo
• Noun plurals, third person present tense verb forms, possessives, and contractions after vowels and the voiceless consonants / p /, / t /, / k /, / f /, and / d / are spelled: -s and pronounced / s /.
            asks, baths, beets, beliefs, cakes, carrots, cooks, drinks, grapes, graphs, grasps, hats, hits, it's (it is), Jack's, leeks, laughs, let's (let us), looks, maps, meats, Miss Crist's, Pat's, Ruth's, soaps, socks, soups, sweets, tapes, tasks, tastes, tests, that's (that is), treats, wasps, what's (what is) 
/ ʃ /                       / s / 
leash                 lease
mesh                mess
shame              same
shave                save
she'd                 seed
she'll                 seal
shed                  said
sheet                 seat
shelf                  self
shine                 sign
ship                   sip
shock                sock
shoe                  sue
shoot, chute     suit
show                 sew, sow, so
shower             sour
41  / z /       zoo, rose, nose, closed
Cách phát âm / z /, đầu lưỡi chạm chân răng cửa trên, sau đó mở nhanh kéo môi hữu thanh.
To make the / z / sound: Place the tip of your tongue above and behind your upper teeth. Pull your lips back. Add your voice. 
            anxiety, cheese, cousin, easy, freeze, lazy, rose, vegetables, xerox, xylophone, zero  
/ s /                     / z /
buss                  buzz
cease                sees
face                   phase
hearse              hers
hiss                   his
ice                      eyes
lacey                  lazy
loose                 lose
pace                  pays
peace                peas
place                 plays
price                  prize
raced                 raised
rice                     rise
sip                      zip
Sue                    zoo
• The letter x is sometimes pronounced as / g / + / z /. 
            exact, exaggerate, examine, exert, exist 
• The sounds / s / and / z / can indicate the difference between a noun and a verb.
Nouns-/ s /       Verbs-/ z /
the abuse         to abuse
the advice         to advise
the excuse        to excuse
the grease        to grease
the house         to house
the use              to use
• Noun plurals, third person present tense verb forms, possessives, and contractions after vowels and the voiced consonants / b /, / d /, / g /, / v /, / m /, / n /, / ng /, / l /, / r /, and / d / are spelled: -s or -es, and pronounced / z /. Be very careful not to pronounce the vowel e.
            Bob's, breads, breathes, brings, cans, comes, cries, does, dogs, heads, he's, hers, his, items, kinds, labs, leaves, lies, magazines, Martha's, medicines, newspapers, onions, ours, peas, plays, potatoes, prisms, rides, rise, rooms, runs, she's, sees, sings, smiles, soothes, theirs, things, Thursdays, tomatoes, toys, vegetables, yours
• After the sounds / s /, / z /, / ʃ /, / tʃ /, / ʒ / and / j /, add the combined sound / əz / to the word.
            abuses, amazes, amuses, britches, Bruce's, bruises, brushes, causes, churches, dances, entrances, faxes, garages, glasses, Gooch's, juices, kisses, lettuces, massages, matches, niece's, offices, packages, Page's, pages, peaches, praises, prices, radishes, Rose's, Rolexes, sashes, Solange's, spices, stages, surprises, teaches, things, Trish's, uses, washes, watches, wishes
42  / ʃ /         she, sure, emotion, leash, nation, special, wash
Cách phát âm / ʃ /,
hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, môi nhô tròn, sau đó mở nhanh tạo làn hơi đi qua vùng giữa lưỡi vô thanh.
To make the / ʃ / sound: Purse your lips to a rounded position. Press the sides of your tongue against your teeth so that a valley is formed down the center of your tongue. Place your tongue high in the center of your mouth. Do not let it touch your gum ridge or teeth. Push air out between your top and bottom front teeth. 
            anxious, assure, Charlotte, chauffeur, chef, emotion, expression, fashion, issue, leash, machine, mention, ocean, shame, Sharon, she, shine, shopped, shopping, social, special, sugar, sure, tension, wishes, wished  
/ tʃ /                      / ʃ /                     / s /                      / ʃ /  
cheek                chic                   same                 shame
chin                   shin                   see                    she
chip                   ship                   so                      show
choose             shoes               Sue                    shoe
match               mash
matched           mashed           gas                    gash
matching          mashing          lease                 leash
watch                wash                 mass                mash
watches           washes            mess                 mesh
/ ʃ /                      / tʃ /         
cash                 catch     
chic                   chick     
crush                crutch     
dish                  ditch     
hush                 hutch     
marsh              march     
mash                match     
share                chair
sheep               cheap
sheik                cheek
shop                 chop
wish                  witch     

43  / ʒ /       pleasure, beige, seizure, measure
Cách phát âm / ʒ /, hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, môi nhô tròn, sau đó mở nhanh hữu thanh.
To make the / ʒ / sound: Purse your lips to a rounded position. Press the sides of your tongue against your teeth so that a valley is formed down the center of your tongue. Place your tongue high in the center of your mouth. Do not let it touch your gum ridge or teeth. Add your voice.
            Asia, azure, beige, equation, garage, measure, occasionally, Persian, pleasure, prestige, regime, seizure, television, treasure, usual, usually, vision

/ z /                      / ʒ /
Caesar             seizure
closing             closure
laser                 leizure
pleaser            pleasure

44  / x /       loch Scottish
Cách phát âm / x /, mặt lưỡi chạm vòm mềm, tạo làn hơi đi từ họng hữu thanh.

45  / h /      ham, hot, behave
Cách phát âm / h /, tạo làn hơi đi từ họng vô thanh.
To make the / h / sound: Force air from the throat, let the air flow freely out of your mouth. Do not let the back of your tongue touch your palate. 
            alcohol, behave, have, haven't, hay, he, her, hiding, hill, him, home, hope, hot, hotel, Howard, huge, hurry, husband, hutch, mahogany, Ohio, preheat, what, who, whole
• The letter h is not pronounced in the following words. 
            ah, bought, caught, exhaust, exhort, exhume, fight, heir, herb, honest, honor, hour, John, khaki, night, oh, rhythm, though, through, thyme, shepherd, vehement, what, when, where, why

46  / m /    man, ham, my, amend, clam
Cách phát âm / m /, môi ngậm chặc, tạo làn hơi đi qua mũi hữu thanh.
To make the / m / sound: Press your lips together. Begin voicing. Make the sound come through your nose. 
            amend, camp, clam, climb, comb, coming, Emily, famous, from, games, ham, him, home, I'm, Maine, make, man, maybe, mother, my, name, rim, roomate, rum, Sam, simmer, some, sum, swim, swimmer, tamed, them, tomorrow
/ m /                   / ŋ /
rim                     ring
rum                    rung
Sam                  sang
simmer             singer
sum, some      sung
swim                 swing
swimmer          swinger

47  / n /      no, tin, annoy, ban
Cách phát âm / n /, lưỡi chạm quanh chân răng trên, tạo làn hơi đi qua mũi hữu thanh.
To make the / n / sound: Press your tongue to your gum ridge. Begin voicing. Make the sound come through your nose. Air flows out of the nose. 
            and, angel, annoy, any, ban, envy, funny, interest, know, money, never, no, plain, sane, then, tin, train
• The letter n is not pronounced in the following words. 
            autumn, column, hymn
/ m /                   / n /
dime                 dine
hem                  hen
lame                 lane
mere                 near
might                night
simmer            sinner
/ n /                     / ŋ /
fan                     fang
lawn                  long
run                     rung
sin                     sing
stun                  stung
thin                    thing 
/ n /                     / l / 
cone                 coal
knife                  life
main                 mail
mine                 mile
name                lame
need                 lead
nice                   lice
niece                 lease
night                  light
no                      low
not                     lot
pine                  pile
ten                    tell 
tune                  tool 
when                well 
win                    will 

48  / ŋ /      ringer, sing, finger, drink, think
Cách phát âm / ŋ /, mặt lưỡi chạm vòm mềm, môi bình thường, tạo làn hơi đi qua mũi hữu thanh.
To make the / ŋ / sound: Touch the back of your tongue to your velum. Keep your lips neutral. Begin voicing. Do not release your tongue. Make the sound come through your nose. 
            belonged, belongings, drink, fascinating, finger, going, hanger, interesting, long, looking, ringer, shopping, sing, singing, song, strong, think, tongue
/ m /                   / n /                     / ŋ /
rum                   run                     rung
Sam                  San                   sang
simmer            sinner               singer
some                son, sun          sung
whim                 win                    wing
• A double consonant sound is formed when / ŋ / is followed by the sounds / g / or / k /. 
            finger, longer, stronger, tangle, thanking, thinking, sinking, drinking 

49  / l /         left, bell, land, hello
Cách phát âm / l /, uốn lưỡi mặt dưới lưỡi chạm chân răng trên, môi bình thường, sau đó mở nhanh tạo làn hơi đi qua hai bên lưỡi hữu thanh. / l / được đọc / lə / khi đứng cuối của từ.
To make the / l / sound: Curl your tongue up; put the under side of your tongue to your gum ridge, but the sides of the tongue are dropped down and tensed. While realease your tongue, add your voice. Air flows out of the mouth around each side of the tongue. When a word ends with an / l / sound, add a schwa for an exaggerated / lə / sound. 
            alcohol, alive, animal, believe, bell, bowling, clam, clean, climb, daily, fellow, fill, film, flight, glass, he'll, hello, I'll, it'll, label, lake, land, landscape, laugh, lead, led, lemon, lift, liver, Lola, lots, love, lovely, Luke, male, pale, pail, place, play, she'll, shelf, solve, they'll, yellow, you'll, we'll, what'll, will  
            lad / laid,  lease / less, lid / lied, like / lick, feel / fell, mule / mull, pale / pal, pile / pill, seal / sale
            feel / fail / file,  meal / mill / mile,  pal / pale / pill,  peel / pill / pile,  rail / role / rule
• The letter l is not pronounced in the following words.     
            could, half, halves, Lincoln, salve, should, would  
/ l /                       / n /                    / t /                       / d /
law                     gnaw                 taw                     daw
lee                      knee                  tea                     D
low                     know                  toe                    dough
alley                   Annie's              at ease
belly                   Benny                Betty
caller                 Conner              cotter
When a word ends with an / l / sound, connect it to the next word if you can, or
• Hold the / l / sound extra long.
fill /fiəllll/           full /fʊəllll/           fool /fuəllll/       fail /f
əllll/
fell /fɛəllll/        feel /fiəllll/           fuel /fyuəllll/      furl /frrəllll/
• Add a slight schwa for an exaggerated / lə / sound.
fill /fi ələ/          full /fʊ ələ/           fool /fu ələ/       fail /f
ələ/
fell /fɛ ələ/       feel /fi ələ/           fuel /f
yu ələ/      furl /frr ələ/

/ ʊ
ll /        / ɑll /        / aʊl /      / ɛll /      / le /      / oll /       / il /          / əɹl /
bull         ball          bowel     bell       bale        bowl      Beal       bottle
-              call           cowl       Kelly      kale        cold       keel       coddle
full          fall            foul         fell         fail          foal        feel         fetal
-              hall          howl        hell        hail        hole       heel       huddle
-              hauled    howled   held       hailed   hold       healed   hurtle
pull         pall          Powell    pell        pail        pole       peel       poodle
Schultz   shawl     -               shell      shale    shoal     she'll     shuttle
tulle        tall           towel       tell          tale       toll          teal        turtle
-               vault        vowel      veldt       veil        vole       veal        vital
wool       wall         -               well        whale   whole    wheel    wheedle
you'll       yawl        yowl        yell          Yale      -              yield      yodel 

50  / ɹ /        run, very, rent, borrow, bar
Cách phát âm / ɹ /, lưỡi sau THẤP hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, môi mở tròn, uốn lưỡi, tạo làn hơi đi qua vùng giữa lưỡi hữu thanh. / ɹ / được đọc / əɹ / khi đứng cuối của từ.
To make the / ɹ / sound: Place the sides of your tongue up against the insides of your back, upper teeth. Round your lips. Curl the tip of your tongue back, but do not let it touch your palate. Air flows out along the middle of the tongue. When a word ends with an / ɹ / sound, add a schwa for an exaggerated / əɹ / sound. 
            around, bird, cared, cares, carol, colonel, cry, draw, ever, father, feared, fears, fired, fires, florist, flower, friend, from, green, her, here, lured, lures, martyr, meringue, mirror, more, mother, never, orphan, our, prettier, price, race, ran, remember, ride, Rita, Robert, Roger, rose, short, sorry, store, story, surprise, their, there're, they're, thirty, three, through, tomorrow, try, very, we're, writer, you're, your  
            rack / rake, red / reed, rip / ripe, rid / ride
            cure / core / care,  dear / dare / dire,  fear / fair / fire,  hear / hair / hire,  pure / pair / peer
/ l /                      / ɹ /
alive                  arrive
believe             bereave
belly                  berry
clam                 cram
climb                crime
coal                  core
fail                     fair

feel                   fear                  
flight                 fright
heal                  hear
label                 labor
lamb                 ram
lane                  rain
late                   rate
laughed           raft
led, lead          red, read
lift                      rift
light                  right, write
limb                  rim
lime                  rhyme
liver                   river
lock                   rock
look                   rook
loom                 room
low                    row
pale, pail          pare, pair, pear
plays                 prays, praise

Lill                     real                   
roll                     roar
steel                 steer

51  / w /     we, queen, win, always, wow
Cách phát âm / w /, mặt lưỡi chạm vòm mềm, ban đầu môi căng TRÒN chạm răng cửa, sau đó môi mở rộng, kéo lưỡi nhanh hữu thanh.
To make the / w / sound: Round your lips and press them back against the front of your teeth. Now add your voice. Unround your lips while pull tongue back.
            away, awhile, once, one, queen, sweet, twenty, was, we, where, whistle, why
• The letter w is not pronounced in the following words. 
            knowledge, sword, toward, two, who, whole, whom, whose, wren, write, wrong
/ v /                     / w /
vain                   wane
vase                  ways, weighs
veal                   wheel, we'll
veer                   we're
veil                    whale
vent                   went
very, vary           wary
verse                 worse
vest                   west
vicious              wishes
vile                     while
vine                   wine
vow                   wow

52  / j /         yes, beyond

Cách phát âm / j /, mặt lưỡi gần chạm vòm hai bên lưỡi chạm răng hàm trên, môi căng rộng, kéo lưỡi nhanh hữu thanh.
To make the / j / sound: Place the sides of your tongue to touch the insides of your upper teeth, near the center of your mouth. Quickly pull your tongue back, adding your voice. 
            beyond, mayor, year, yellow, yes, yet
• The letter y is not pronounced in the following words.                 
            says, prayers
• When the sound / y / is followed by the vowel sound / u /, the combination is the vowel sound / iuw /. 
            use, usual, Utah, you, youth                   
/ dʒ /                   / j /
gel                     yell
jeer                    year
jello                   yellow
jet                      yet
joke                   yoke
jot                      yacht
major                mayor 

53  / ʍ /     what, whine, white
Cách phát âm / ʍ /, mặt lưỡi chạm vòm mềm, tạo làn hơi đi từ họng hữu thanh.

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18/03/2014 18:03 # 2
thanhanwq
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